The market expansion due to globalization generated more anthropogenic contaminants, enhancing their negative impact on the environment. In order to prevent and balanced their negative effect, more rapid, sensitive and eco-friendly ecotoxicological studies as risk assessments were developed. Each country developed national programs to ensure the research infrastructure for implementation and development of new testing methodologies, generating new experimental data transferable to governmental authorities, economic agents and academia. In this review, we intend to highlighted the progress of Romanian researchers in the last 10 years in the field of ecotoxicology and aquatic risk assessment. The studies focused on aquatic systems as a non-targeted system to the anthropogenic pollutants impact. The implemented methodologies according with international requirements for chemical control like REACH Regulation, Detergents Regulation, Biocide Products Regulation or the Aquatic Risk Assessment Guidelines were presented. The ecotoxicological effects of various contaminants such as detergents, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, biocides or heavy metals and environmental polluted samples (surface water, sediment or sludge) were provided. Overall, the studies presented in our studies have a nationally novelty through the variety of test substances, the complexity of laboratory experiments and data processing. The research work has a continue applicability in industry and for control authorities. New accredited testing services that providing useful information about the chemicals and their impact on the environmental were introduced. In addition, the ecotoxicology studies and their challenges were a great source for professional training like PhD and master studies and for impact published papers.